Value, space, and perspective are used to create and imply depth in a work of art. Value refers to how light or dark something is. Space is the distance between identifiable points or planes and perspective is the creation of the illusion of depth in a 2D image and requires mathematic principles to achieve. Before we go further in this section please watch Masters of Illusion, parts 1 and 2 following these links.
Surrealist artist Rene Magritte challenges our perception of reality. Where Oppenheim challenged our understanding of texture, Magritte is forcing us to question how we understand what we see. For those of you that do not speak French, the words under the image translate to “This is not a pipe . However, the image is quite clearly a pipe. So what is Magritte referring to? Ask yourself, is it really a pipe? Can you put tobacco in it and use it? No. It is an image of a pipe. So, it is not a pipe. With light and shadow Magritte does create a very realistic image of a pipe, but it is an image nonetheless.